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Roadmap of Migration and Development – Two priorities: A Way to Get Forward

Roadmap of Migration and Development – Two priorities: A Way to Get Forward

The objective of this Manifesto proposed for adoption by all partners and stakeholders in European cooperation, aims to advocate the involvement of migrant actors in the definition and in the implementation of policies on migration and development after 2015.

It is important to affirm and support the role that migrants and diasporas play in the global development both in their home countries and in their country of origin. Of course, developments and changes are observed by development practitioners and some policymakers who are more likely to recognize the contribution of migrants and diasporas to development in their countries of residence and origin .

Moreover, one can observe that migration and its links (including the impact on the development) are now in a number of international programs such as the High Level Dialogue of the United Nations (HLD), the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD), Rio +20, Monitoring of the Cairo Conference on Population and Development in 2014, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Development Framework for post- 2015.

Despite these advances, two major obstacles or challenges still lie ahead, at (1) the coherence of development policies and (2) the insufficient involvement of migrants as development partners

Development cooperation has had three different paradigms since the 1980s:

a) the neoliberal phase of the Washington Consensus in the context of structural adjustment programs following the debt crisis of the Third World in the early 1980s;

b) the Millennium Agenda launched in 2000 and focused on the fight against poverty and the effectiveness of aid in the post-September 11, 2001 war against terrorism;

c) the agenda for development effectiveness in Busan launched in 2011, reflecting both the rise of South-South cooperation, the growing role of the private sector and new challenges in terms of policy coherence for development.

In 2009, the EU has identified five priority areas to ensure Policy Coherence for Development: trade and finance, food security, migration, security and climate change. The challenge is to translate these statements into real strategies to ensure policy coherence for development. Policies in different areas should be part of a goal of consistency, that of sustainable development globally.

Regarding the involvement of the diaspora (as a global partner for development), it has often been approached through the prism of strategies to integrate the resources of the diaspora (remittances), particularly in the achievement of Millennium Development Goal of reducing poverty. We must, however, recognize that due to the lack of integration of the diaspora in official development discourse, the diaspora acted without being regarded as a real partner in the importance of integrating the formal frameworks .

It is time to assert that growth alone is not enough. As well as the MDGs are not sufficient. In 2000, the United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be achieved by 2015. These goals have helped to create a coordinated poverty reduction worldwide effort. And remarkable progress has been made in a number of areas.

But, even if all eight goals and objectives are achieved, many countries remain poor and underdeveloped. A major reason for this partial failure is that the MDGs fail to take into account how the diaspora, who pays nearly half a billion dollars a year to developing countries, can be exploited to facilitate the structural and economic transformation, so essential to a sustainable development.

In the interest of achieving socio-economic transformation, structural and inclusive sustainable development, the diaspora may have an important role to play. This is why the Manifesto, to adopt by the partners of the European Union, supports the argument that this will be achieved by integrating the diaspora across institutional framework as a “global partner” to development after 2015.

1. Policy recommendations 1

Further diaspora engagement in development cooperation


  1. A. Acknowledge the development efforts of migrant organizations

- Recognize migrants as development actors by encouraging and strengthening their own initiative through programming and funding

- Encourage development actors, science institutions, schools, local authorities to acknowledge the development potential of diaspora and the social remittances (intercultural, social and language competencies) acquired through migration

- Encourage better communication of the governmental organization

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from the donors countries and stipendium students from the developing countries

- Engage the EU member states and international development actors to establish a fruitful and two-way working relationship with diaspora organizations

- Involve diaspora organizations in the ODA programming of the EU member states, invite them become part of the working groups and decision-making process, evaluation committees and other bodies related to international development cooperation

- “Unpack the diaspora”, investigate the heterogeneity, development efforts and needs of different diaspora groups in the nearest community

- Establish equal partnerships between diaspora organizations and development actors applying a non-imperialistic and non-patronizing approach

- Apply a diversity approach and address gender inequality in development cooperation

- Put a conducive legislative and regulatory framework in place that promotes diaspora engagement by allowing for dual or multiple citizenship, flexible visa and residence requirements, portability of social and pension rights

- Adapt recruitment policies of ministries, development NGOs and agencies, donors, research institutes and think tanks by promoting affirmative action for migrants, offer internships for migrants and students of aid-recipient countries

- Introduce migration policies that further diaspora engagement, knowledge sharing through transnational engagement of diasporas and ‘brain circulation’ instead of restrictive migration policies that force migrants into permanent settlement


  1. B. Restructure development cooperation and incorporate diaspora engagement

- Apply a whole-of-government Policy Coherence for Development approach in donor countries and define coherence between migration and development as one of the priorities: identify synergies and demonstrate cost-effectiveness of PCD, involve multiple ministries and government levels for implementing PCD, institute adequate mechanisms/instruments, mandate ministries/institutions/state secretaries/agencies/focal points with the implementation of PCD and policy arbitration to settle conflicts of interests

- Strengthen the PCD approach by improving the monitoring and evaluation and by assessing the impact of donors’ countries policies on aid-receiving countries, especially of migration, environment, agriculture, trade and financial policies

- Involve diaspora organizations and research institutions in aid-receiving countries in the monitoring and evaluation process

- Respect an open and broad definition of development and consider the development priorities of migrant development actors with a particular focus on the needs of women and vulnerable groups

- Shift from a project to a process approach and from a charity to a Human-Rights-based Approach that enables long-term programmes and active participation of all stakeholders

- Introduce diaspora engagement programmes based on pilot studies in which the structures, capacity needs, competencies, strengths and weaknesses of diaspora organizations are investigated

- When designing diaspora engagement programmes, take into account that most migrant organizations work on a voluntary basis and thus donate office space and minimal operational budget

- Involve migrants in national/regional/local development planning, policy making, enhance the participation of the poor in political decision-making and increase awareness of politicians and policy makers on the development potential of migration

- Strengthen the cooperation between donor and aid-recipient countries without linking it to return programmes and focus on the transfer of skills and financial resources

- Further co-development policies by promoting sustainable cooperation among enterprises, (local) authorities, training institutions and associations

- Mobilize countries of origin to develop national strategies, institutions and policy instruments for diaspora engagement leveraging the development efforts of ODA

- Identify and diversify (co)funding possibilities for the development projects/programs of migrant organizations

- Encourage governments in aid-recipient countries to explore innovative funding possibilities such as foundations, government-managed and self-funded welfare funds, diaspora councils, matching funds, hometown associations, consular networks, private-public partnerships etc.


  1. C. Build capacity of all (potential) development actors

- Raise awareness of development actors (NGOs, agencies, donors, ministries, research institutions, schools, local authorities, policy-makers) on the potential and impact of diaspora engagement

- Strengthen the cross-governmental approach for networking among all ministries/departments/agencies involved

- Raise awareness, offer trainings and workshops for development NGOs, development agencies, donors, ministries, policy makers on the development impact of diaspora engagement: cross-governmental approach for trainings, strengthen the networking among all actors involved

- Support diaspora networking and the establishment of umbrella organizations of diasporas

- Offer trainings and workshops for diaspora organizations on project cycle management, monitoring and evaluation, proposal writing, strategic planning, fundraising, financial literacy, lobbying and advocacy

- When designing capacity building programmes, take needs, strengths and weaknesses of women and vulnerable groups into consideration and offer specific, tailor-made capacity building measures

- Establish online project partner platforms, provide maintaining and up-dating of these platforms and link them to development NGO platforms

- Offer information packages for students from aid-recipient countries on the university structures, degree programs, scholarships, job and housing opportunities, facilitate integration in the culture and society of the countries of destination through networking, social and cultural activities, offer/donate a certain number of rooms in

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student dormitories to the most underprivileged migrant students and take the gender perspective into account

- Integrate information on diaspora engagement in the education and internship programmes of the EU member states and take the specific needs of women and most vulnerable groups into consideration


  1. D. Promote research, monitoring & evaluation

- Address the lack of an evaluation culture in the migration and development domain by disseminating evaluation results widely through informative and well-structured websites and knowledge-exchange platforms: use evidence of positive outcomes to increase donors’ confidence


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Promote research on the political, social and economic context that is favorable for diaspora engagement

- Establish research partnerships between diaspora organizations, development actors, research institutes and donors

- Ensure that each program is monitored periodically, especially multiyear or complex programs: conduct also costly impact evaluations that provide statistics and focus particularly on the antipoverty impact, apply gender indicators and gender assessment tools in monitoring and evaluation activities

- Introduce effective, innovative and easily applicable online monitoring and evaluation tools and gender assessment tools that can be shared by all stakeholders in donor and aid-recipient countries

- Commission proficient, experienced and independent institutions with sophisticated, time- and cost-effective monitoring and evaluation tasks and instruct responsible public institutions with easy-to-use monitoring tasks

- Commission an interdisciplinary team of evaluators to develop gender-sensitive indicators for diaspora engagement and incorporate them systematically in project and programme monitoring & evaluation

- Provide sufficient funding for research and monitoring and evaluation: convince donors that monitoring and evaluation increases the effectiveness and efficiency of programs/projects, search for stakeholders to share costs with other stakeholders

- Study the innovative funding opportunities for meeting the diaspora efforts among public, private and non-government actors

- If there is no diaspora engagement program in place: examine a counterfactual, an analysis of the cost to the country of not having such a program and use the results for advocacy purposes

- If money for evaluations is lacking: identified key actors should recognize most important policy questions and initiate studies around those questions


  1. E. Promote awareness raising, development education and knowledge exchange &

- Raise awareness of migrants, development actors, national and local authorities, media and general public on the interdependencies of societies globally

- Involve all development actors in the dissemination of information and knowledge on cultural, social and economic benefits of migration and development programs, projects and initiatives

- Raise awareness on the development potential of migration through innovative information campaigns for civil society, scholars, students, public authorities and policy makers

- Media-effective dissemination of the lessons learned of what works related to promoting diaspora engagement

- Establish knowledge-sharing and an interactive online platform based on networking and cooperation between various development actors

- Involve intercultural media and journalists with a migration background in reporting on migration and development issues

- Promote diversity inclusiveness in mainstream media industry, strengthen the capacities of mainstream media to include diversity in their daily work

- Develop an index for inclusive and intercultural modes of media content, design and production and involve migrant’s media associations actively in this


2. Policy recommendations 2

Diaspora Entrepreneurship


  1. A. Strengthen cooperation between donor and aid-recipient countries for improving entrepreneurship

- Apply a whole-of-government Policy Coherence for Development approach in donor countries that goes beyond aid, define coherence between migration and development as one of the priorities: identify synergies and demonstrate cost-effectiveness of PCD, involve multiple ministries and government levels for implementing PCD, institute adequate mechanisms/instruments, mandate ministries/institutions/state secretaries/agencies with PCD implemention and policy arbitration to settle conflicts of interests (useless repetion of recommendations)

- Spur development in specific geographic regions through business forums, joint-business promotion events and quick business meetings with a particular focus on women’s and vulnerable group’s business opportunities and required skills

- Establish partnerships among governments through the strengthening and implementation of codevelopment policies by promoting cooperation among enterprises, local authorities, training institutions and associations

- Explore the development potential of twinning partnerships of municipalities in countries of origin and destination

- Improve networking of the EU representatives of diplomatic and economic associations in aid-recipient countries for targeting proper business models and identifying financial stimuli responding to the local conditions

- Mobilize diaspora organizations to act as intermediaries between governments in aid-recipient and donor countries for the implementation of investment policies such as tax exemptions and deductions on diaspora/development cooperation-related investments

- Set up a common EU portal on the policies/mechanisms/instruments for diaspora entrepreneurship and the development potential of remittances (this shall be a task of a particular project or institution)

- Encourage public authorities (development agencies and relevant ministries) to take a lead in building up linkages between the private, public and non-government sector and in considering the needs, capacities, strengths and weaknesses of women and vulnerable groups in development cooperation

- Introduce effective co-financing schemes of ODA programmes in support of the entrepreneurs, SMEs, start-ups, job diversification, notably the small investments/income-generation/social firms

- Involve non-governmental organizations and business-oriented agencies, regional development agencies and diaspora in the funds from aid donors

- Introduce decentralized, cross-border and/or regional partnership programs for meeting micro-economic needs and funding opportunities

- Prioritize funding of initiatives affecting women and most vulnerable groups in ODA programmes


  1. B. Enhance the entrepreneurs’ capacities and create durable alliances


- Support the development and preparation of business projects initiated or implemented by diaspora and their members

- Promote networking alliances among development actors and migrant groups

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involved in entrepreneurship development schemes in order to exchange experience and knowledge on funds acquisition and PCM

- Bring together local entrepreneurs, business owners, and government officials with the

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diaspora counterparts for initiating community investments

- Increase the long-term strategic alliances between diaspora-connected entities taking the special needs, strengths and weaknesses of women and vulnerable groups into account

- Improve the business development skills of migrants to set up SMEs in their countries of origin and identify the specific needs, weaknesses and strengths of women and vulnerable groups

- Facilitate diaspora communities on how to develop business plans, raise funds and establish start-up firms, deliver products and services

- Provide customized courses and individual consultations for potential diaspora entrepreneurs on business planning and micro-financing and offer specific capacity building measures for women and vulnerable groups

- Train diaspora communities to offer capacity building measures for business development themselves

- Improve financial literacy of the diaspora and other development actors involved in diaspora entrepreneurship

- Secure adequate information technology (hardware and software) in diaspora entrepreneurship programmes and activities

- Enhance cooperation between the economic/trade platforms/chambers, diaspora experts and business leaders who can advise the local entrepreneurs on how to establish and manage successful business and penetrate the global market, and introduce them to other business partners

- Create one-stop shop for SME investment information and support services for the development of economically sustainable projects in aid-recipient countries

- Organize business events for diaspora members, introduce educational trips, facilitate online virtual communities of members worldwide


  1. C. Raise awareness, channel expertise and promote research


- Increase awareness on the development potential of local businesses and SMEs in aid-recipient countries, the entrepreneurs’ opportunities and needs, taking the specific needs of women and vulnerable groups into consideration, through information campaign

- Share information on economic needs of communities, on how to invest and obtain business plans

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in aid-recipient countries

- Ensure knowledge sharing on the active involvement of women and the most vulnerable groups (disabled, handicapped, those living on the verge of poverty)

- Establish and inform about common initiatives, transnational meetings, virtual contact points, blogging for raising awareness

- Use diaspora skills, strengths and experiences in the negotiations with development actors from the EU for development of investment initiatives

- Establish an interdisciplinary expert pool for diaspora entrepreneurship and strive for gender balance

- Create international networks of top business leaders who are able to create and deploy a potentially influential resource for development and offer advice to entrepreneurs, company owner,

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- Establish an online portal for local investment opportunities including information on how to obtain business loans, counseling services and local investment projects

- Promote research on agriculture, forestry, husbandry etc. and knowledge-driven schemes that support the identification and development of partnership projects between diaspora and non-governmental institutions/universities/umbrella organizations, economic associations, development agencies, SME bodies


  1. D. Improve funding conditions for diaspora entrepreneurship

- Accept migrants’ money as guarantee for credits, promote remittance-backed loans, mortgages, business credits

- Promote financial inclusion of migrants and increase transparency, e.g. by giving acces to the banking system for migrant entrepreneurs who are receiving/collecing remittances (creation of bank account, credit history, etc[NS1] .)[GT2]

- Design financial products[NS3] [GT4] that serve the needs of migrants and their families while directing them to more productive uses in their countries of origin

- Facilitate and reduce costs of remittances through special rates of financial transactions

- Mobilize countries of origin to develop national strategies, institutions and policy instruments for diaspora entrepreneurship leveraging the development efforts of ODA

- Identify and diversify (co)funding possibilities for the entrepreneurship initiatives of migrant organizations

- Build partnerships with the international community for the establishment of Development Investment Funds for co-financing the (social) business projects of Home Town Associations

- Promote the establishment of self-funded welfare and saving funds, managed by aid-recipient countries’ government

- Encourage governments in aid-recipient countries to explore innovative funding possibilities through international organizations (i.e. IOM, UN) and financial institutions (i.e. WB), foundations, government-managed and self-funded welfare and saving funds, diaspora councils, matching funds, hometown associations, consular networks, private-public partnerships etc[NS5] .

- Initiate the discussion on how to trigger complementary co-financing through accumulating welfare funds from the pension and social security systems of the EU MS[NS6] [GT7]

- Channel savings into productive investments, ensure seed money/access to credits and provide migrants with a minimum return on their savings


  1. E. Promote diaspora tourism


- Support diaspora-driven projects for community-based tourism related to heritage, farming, environment conservation, energy and women rights

- Support diaspora entrepreneurship in new tourism markets and sectors applying a sensible approach of exploring and preserving the global environment and human heritage

- Cooperate with aid-receiving governments on the involvement of their diaspora in conceptualizing tourism offers

- Promote business-related tourism (conference tourism, company’s activities, diplomatic and international business events) in developing countries

- Enlighten and inspire cultural and heritage tourism through up-to-date information, compelling first-person travel articles and scholarly research

- Brightening programmes for deepening ties between diaspora communities and their ancestral homelands through catering for the generation differences (especially needed for the second and third generation immigrants)

- Encourage diaspora mediates in the development of alliances for community development through the employment of the travel agencies that could support heritage tourism and launch/support community funding programmes




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Summary of key recommendations

1. At the European level

w Recognition of the role played by the diaspora as catalysts of global development in all development goals beyond 2015. All achievements in development must be measured in terms of the qualitative and quantitative engagement of diasporas involved in development. Greater visibility should be given to the contributions of diasporas through specialized media that feed the main national and transnational media, based on best practices and migrants successful initiatives ;

w The best way to facilitate practical cooperation is the creation of diasporas platforms. These platforms must be supported by key stakeholders at the international, national and local level, working in partnership with them. National governments and intergovernmental organizations should support the creation of these platforms. Furthermore, they must support these platforms by a subsidy for their operation, saw that the authorities expect them to deliver some services to their public and private partners as information, training, networking, performance, … The expressed political will must be translated into this structural support ;

2. At the state level

w Express the political will of states to policy coherence for development by an official communication of Heads of Government or Ministers of cooperation;

w Organize tours or campaigns in different countries to support and educate public on policy development and on the consideration of diasporas as development partners;

w States and intergovernmental organizations must create partnerships with diasporas in the field of development activities by participating in the decision-making and working in partnership with them in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies development at international, national and local level in the countries of origin and destination. To this end, each state and intergovernmental organization shall appoint an easily accessible focal point for their diasporas ;

w We need to encourage governments to allocate a certain percentage of their development assistance to development activities by diaspora organizations and in collaboration with them, including to complete the investment of diasporas for development ;

w Periodically organize an Interministerial Conference or a permanent Consultative Forum on International Cooperation for consistency and visibility. Purpose: to ensure more coherence in development policies at the national, regional and local levels;

w We must support immigrant entrepreneurs – men and women – as drivers of economic and social development and empower them to continue to create innovative and sustainable social enterprises ;

w We must address the non-alignment of education systems to the needs of the labor market by making a distinction between qualifications and skills and encouraging networking and entrepreneurial skills required for mobility and the global labor market ;

w In order to guarantee employment for all, we need to encourage mobility and regional integration by taking measures to ensure social cohesion and equal access to labor markets ;

w We must ensure the representation of migrants at local, national and international level, eg in government agencies ; the right to vote shall be granted at the local level and at higher levels ;

3. At the European civil society and migrants actors

w We need to improve the sharing of knowledge between actors in the diaspora, economic actors and States to strengthen links between different markets and to take advantage of knowledge of the transnational diaspora. It is possible to improve job creation in organizing joint professional areas involving the diaspora, the private sector, development agencies and NGOs in countries of origin and destination;

w We must support and encourage European universities to organize chairs or curriculum focused on the theme of migration and development;

w Diaspora Organizations and cupolas / platforms must come together and unite on the lines of force set together to achieve their goals;

w We must strengthen the diaspora community organizations by providing capacity building programs to enable them to contribute significantly to development;

w We need to strengthen the role of migrant women in peacebuilding and conflict resolution and we must ensure their representation and participation in the process of consolidating peace and economic development.


[NS1]Shouldn’t they be able to get credits that are not backed by remittances?

[GT2]They cannot get credit at all, we propose to accept remittances as a collateral

[NS3]What type of financial products?

[GT4]Nadja you cannot instruct also the banks what kind of financial products, we say what the purpose of the products should be.

[NS5]Similar recommendation unter Engagement because it relates to both. Please see p 41 – 53 mpi study

[NS6]Where have you read about this? Welfare and saving funds are usually operated by sending-country government (see p. 39 mpi study)

[GT7]I have been wokring on such project 7 years ago, it is not easy thing. It works in your brautiful cuntry of origin Italy. Part of the social security is accumulated in a welfare fund securing the future business initiatives in the country of origin

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